Organizations today are implementing the latest technology in order to remain effective and competitive regardless of related costs (Annan, 2008; Betts, 2005). Communication technology is among the important new tools needed in modern organizations and communication is a critical dimension of user participation (Hartwick & Barki, 2001). McGann, Frost, Matta, and Huang (2007) pointed out that to modernize an organization, it is necessary to overhaul old systems and integrate new ones to insure continuous improvement. Thus, each organization must determine its needs for changes in existing methods of communication from one department to another and determine the best information technology tools to reach optimal interactions (Henninger, 1996; Rose, 2009).
Implementation of a new organization-specific Query Request Tool requires an understanding of the requirements for this tool as well as how stakeholders feel about the implementation and use of such a tool (EPA, 2009; Henninger, 1996). Hornik, Chen, Klein, and Jiang (2003) reported that stakeholder perspectives provide the information necessary to ensure that the needs of all involved are understood and met and differences in views are identified and resolved. These authors pointed out that there can be a gap between expectations and perceived performance related to a system and this leads to decreased satisfaction with the system and lower use of ne tools. Differences in stakeholders’ opinions can lead to a failure of the new system.
Therefore literature findings support the need to make modern changes within an organization. This begins with providing stakeholders with all information about the problems with the old systems and what new information technology has to offer, complete with text and possible graphs (Heckel & Lohmann, 2007; “Information technology: Research from Drexel University,” 2009;
Information about the limits of the new systems must also be provided (Merali, 2002). Next, stakeholders must be included in the process of identifying the knowledge-sharing requirements of the organization (Parirokh, Daneshgar, & Fattahi, 2008). New query systems allow for the ability to ensure correctness in communication (Kupferman & Vardi, 2003). However, even with these advantages, those involved must be prepared to deal with the new systems (Nicholson, Hancock, & Dahlberg, 2007).
Although included in the process, stakeholders may still present with resistance and other issues that serve as barriers to system implementation (Pervan, Lewis, & Bajwa, 2004). Merali (2002) noted that people have their own belief systems and these are congruent with how they behave and communicate in an organization. Social systems also communicate within a certain network system that is maintained with intellectual and social boundaries. Making changes in an organization may challenge existing systems and thus meet with resistance from the employees.
McGann, Frost, Matta, and Huang (2007) stated that organizations face ever-changing and challenging times demanding that new information systems evolve and include latest tools. However, one of the limits involved in the design and implementation of these new systems lies in the boundaries in the knowledge processes involved (Merali, 2002). Merali pointed out that an organization must adapt to complex systems and this demands that people accept this change. This author stated that making changes in an organization must include the identification of stakeholder boundaries within a cognitive congruence framework. Thus, a project such as the design and implementation of a new organization-specific query request tool in an organization must include an understanding of stakeholders’ perspectives related to the project.
The cognitive congruence framework refers to the need to examine the role of identity and related cognitive processes that are related to the production of a new system. How a stakeholder views their own self and the other is part of the cognitive structure that helps them identify their role in the design, implementation, and use of a new system (Merali, 2002). Merali stated that organizations operate in a dynamic and interactive environment with each stakeholder playing an important role in the organizational community. Boundaries related to these roles and related intellectual properties regulate what takes place in the organization. Relationships within the organization make up a collection of beliefs and perceptions and these determine the content and structure of the organizational knowledge networks. Thus, it is imperative to gather stakeholder perceptions to ensure the success of new systems and this requires communication among project coordinators and stakeholders.
Hornik et al. (2003) noted that ccommunication is a critical component in the successful completion of an information system project. The ability to interact with all potential stakeholders in an organization and to effectively express the ideas among those involved is recognized by researchers and practitioners as critical for success. These findings support the notion that the perceptions of all stakeholders must be obtained in order for the project leader to understand and meet their needs and help overcome resistance to change. Hornik et al. concluded that an organization striving to implement a new system must take steps to improve the communication skills among all stakeholders and this includes the use of a survey. Hornik et al. used a survey to gather stakeholder opinions which supports the use of the survey for the current project.
Annan, D. L. (2008). Facilitating adoption of technology in higher education. Distance Learning, 5(1), 13-17.
Betts, M. (2005, September). The high cost of IT complexity. Computerworld, 39(36), 40.
EPA. (2009). Expert query tool user’s guide. Retrieved June 1, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/waters/tmdl/ez_users_guide.html
Hartwick, J., & Barki, H. (2001). Communication as a dimension of user participation. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 44(1), 21-36.
Heckel, R., & Lohmann, M. (2007). Model-driven development of reactive information systems: from graph transformation rules to JML contracts. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 9(2), 193-207.
Henninger, S. (1996). Building an organization-specific infrastructure to support CASE tools. Automated Software Engineering, 3(3/4), 239-259.
Hornik, S., Chen, H., Klein, G., & Jiang, J. J. (2003). Communication skills of IS providers: An expectation gap analysis from three stakeholder perspectives. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 46(1), 17-34.
Information technology: Research from Drexel University provide new insights into information technology. (2009, January). Information Technology Newsweekly, 49.
Kupferman, O., & Vardi, M. Y. (2003). Vacuity detection in temporal model checking. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 4(2), 224-233.
McGann, S. T., Frost, R. D., Matta, V., & Huang, W. (2007). Meeting the challenge of IS curriculum modernization: A guide to overhaul, integration, and continuous improvement. Journal of Information Systems Education, 18(1), 49-62.
Merali, Y. (2002). The role of boundaries in knowledge processes. European Journal of Information Systems, 11(1), 47-60.
Nicholson, K., Hancock, D., & Dahlberg, T. (2007). Preparing teachers and counselors to help under-represented populations embrace the information technology field. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(1), 123-143.
Parirokh, M., Daneshgar, F., & Fattahi, R. (2008). Identifying knowledge-sharing requirements in academic libraries. Library Review, 57(2), 107-122.
Pervan, G., Lewis, L. F., & Bajwa, D. S. (2004). Adoption and use of electronic meeting systems in large Australian and New Zealand organizations. Group Decision and Negotiation: on GDN 2002 Papers (Guest Editors: Mohammed Quaddus and Des, 13(5), 403-414.
Rose, P. (2009). Determining query and analysis end-user requirements with business objects XI release 2. Retrieved June 1, 2009 from http://www.businessobjects.com/pdf/products/queryanalysis/white_paper_web_intelligence.pdf