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Fossum, Robert H. Hawthorne’s Inviolable Circle. Delano, FL: Everett/Edwards, 1972.
Gerber, John C. “Form and Content in The Scarlet Letter.” New England Quarterly (March 1944): 25-55.
Gale, Robert L. Plots and Characters in the Fiction and Sketches of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Camden, CT: Archon Books, 1968.
Lundblad, Jane. Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Tradition of Gothic Romance. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1946.
Male, Roy R. Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision. Austin: U of Texas P, 1957.
Schubert, Leland. Hawthorne, the Artist. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1944.
Spiller, Robert E. The Cycle of American Literature. New York: Mentor Books, 1956.
Stein, William Bysshe. Hawthorne’s Fause. Gainesville: U of Florida P, , 1953.